School of Information and Library Science
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
INLS 465 – Understanding Information Technology for Managing Digital Collections
[Last Updated: 15 March, 2018]

Spring 2018
Meeting Time: Thursdays, 2:00p-4:45p
Location: Manning 117
Credits: 3
Instructor: Colin Post
Office: Manning 016 (the "PhDungeon")
E-Mail: ccolin@live.unc.edu
Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays, 2:00p-4:00p, or by appointment

Course Overview

In this class, we will cover some of the fundamental principles for how computing and networked technologies function, from both conceptual and technical perspectives. The impetus behind this (more than just 'computers are cool') is that interfacing with digital technologies is an increasingly large component of all manner of cultural heritage work, and thus everyone entering the profession should have at least some applicable knowledge of how these systems function. Beyond just a base knowledge of IT, this course also aims to cultivate critical thinking about the social, political, and cultural implications of information systems (with a particular emphasis on those systems in the cultural heritage field).

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:

Course Policies

Honor Code: All students are required to follow the Honor Code:

As a condition of joining the Carolina community, Carolina students pledge “not to lie, cheat, or steal” and to hold themselves, as members of the Carolina community, to a high standard of academic and non-academic conduct while both on and off Carolina’s campus. This commitment to academic integrity, ethical behavior, personal responsibility and civil discourse exemplifies the “Carolina Way”, and this commitment is codified in both the University's Honor Code and in other University student conduct-related policies.

Special Needs: If you feel that you may need an accommodation for a disability or have any other special need, please make an appointment to discuss this with me. I will best be able to address special circumstances if I know about them early in the semester. My office hours and contact information are listed at the beginning of this syllabus.

Diversity Statement
"In support of the University’s diversity goals and the mission of the School of Information and Library Science, SILS embraces diversity as an ethical and societal value. We broadly define diversity to include race, gender, national origin, ethnicity, religion, social class, age, sexual orientation and physical and learning ability. As an academic community committed to preparing our graduates to be leaders in an increasingly multicultural and global society we strive to:

The statement represents a commitment of resources to the development and maintenance of an academic environment that is open, representative, reflective and committed to the concepts of equity and fairness."

~The faculty of the School of Information and Library Science (http://sils.unc.edu/about/diversity)

Grading

Graduates

Grade Range Definition
H (95 - 100%) The student demonstrates clear excellence in class performance, contributing insightfully to class discussions and turning in work that exceeds expectations.
P (74 - 94.9%) The student performs at a satisfactory level for graduate work. The student demonstrates a grasp on course material and turns in consistently good work.
L (60 - 73.9%) The student performs below the expected level for graduate work. The student struggles to grasp course material and turns in consistently poor work. However, the student still demonstrates some growth in the area of the course, and evidences the ability to apply this knowledge, albeit in a manner inadequate compared to graduate level expectations.
F (0 - 59.9%) For whatever reasons, an unacceptable performance. The F grade indicates that the student's performance in the required exercises has revealed almost no understanding of the course content. A grade of F should warrant an adviser's questioning whether the student may suitably register for further study in the discipline before remedial work is undertaken.

Undergraduates

Grade Range Definition
A (94 - 100%);
A- (90 - 93.9%)
Mastery of course content at the highest level of attainment that can reasonably be expected of students at a given stage of development. The A grade states clearly that the student has shown such outstanding promise in the aspect of the discipline under study that he/she may be strongly encouraged to continue.
B+ (87 - 89.9%);
B (84 - 86.9%);
B- (80 - 83.9%)
Strong performance demonstrating a high level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The B grade states that the student has shown solid promise in the aspect of the discipline under study.
C+ (77-79.9%):
C (74 - 76.9%);
C- (70 - 73.9%)
A totally acceptable performance demonstrating an adequate level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The C grade states that, while not yet showing any unusual promise, the student may continue to study in the discipline with reasonable hope of intellectual development.
D+ (67 - 69.9%);
D (64 - 66.9%);
D- (60-63.9%)
A marginal performance in the required exercises demonstrating a minimal passing level of attainment for a student at a given stage of development. The D grade states that the student has given no evidence of prospective growth in the discipline; an accumulation of D grades should be taken to mean that the student would be well advised not to continue in the academic field.
F (0 - 59.9%) For whatever reasons, an unacceptable performance. The F grade indicates that the student's performance in the required exercises has revealed almost no understanding of the course content. A grade of F should warrant an adviser's questioning whether the student may suitably register for further study in the discipline before remedial work is undertaken.

These definitions are from: http://www.unc.edu/faculty/faccoun/reports/2000-01/R2001GradingStandardsAddendum.htm

Attendance

Regular attendance for this class is expected, and constitutes the foundation for a student’s success in the course. Class meetings give us an opportunity to discuss the readings, develop key concepts, and build knowledge together. Please let me know ahead of time if you expect to miss any class sessions. I am generally understanding and flexible. I count an absence as missing half or more of a class session. For students who miss more than 3 class sessions, I will detract 5% from your final grade for each additional absence.

Late Assignments

All assignments are expected to be turned in on time by the date specified on the syllabus—unless you make arrangements with me for an extension before the due date. Late assignments will be marked down 25% for each day following the due date. In other words, assignments turned in more than 4 days late will not be accepted for any credit.

Note on extensions: I am generally lenient and understanding, so if you have extenuating circumstances that you expect will prevent you from turning in an assignment on time, see me as soon as possible to discuss an extension. If you fail to turn the assignment in by the date of the extension, the above policy will apply.

Course Assignments and Requirements

For complete descriptions, see below. I will also post copies of the assignment descriptions and rubrics on Sakai.

Important Note on Plagiarism

It is very important that you both attribute your sources and avoid excessive use of quotes (see separate document called "In Your Own Words"). Be aware of the University of North Carolina policy on plagiarism. Your written work must be original. Ask if you have any doubts about what this means.

All cases of plagiarism (unattributed quotation or paraphrasing) of anyone else's work, whether from someone else's answers to homework or from published materials, will be officially reported and dealt with according to UNC policies (Instrument of Student Judicial Governance, Section II.B.1. and III.D.2, http://instrument.unc.edu).

Course Readings

"Required" Texts:

We will be drawing heavily on the following texts. However, How Computers Work is available on reserve at the SILS Library, and the other two titles are freely available as ebooks via UNC libraries (links provided), so you do not necessarily need to purchase your own analog copies. You may find it more convenient or preferable to purchase your own copies, in which case I would recommend searching for new or used copies on vialibri. I have also put an order for How Computers Work in to the student book store (but not the other two titles).

SILS Reserves

In addition to How Computers Work, many of the other weekly readings will be drawn from books held on reserve at the SILS library. You can request to use all of these books at the SILS Library on the first floor of Manning Hall (behind the SILS Library help desk).

For the weekly readings, the following labels indicate where specific course readings can be located:

R = Reserves at SILS Library in Manning Hall

C = Course site in Sakai (under the 'Resources' tab)

O = Online through UNC license. NOTE: Accessing these materials can require you either to use a computer with a UNC IP address or visit the associated sites through a UNC proxy server. See: Off Campus Access.

W = Publicly accessible Web

Another resource that you might find interesting is Computer Science Unplugged (developed for primary school, but also informative for adults).

Tools to Support Curation of Digital Collections

This class is not focused on specific applications. However, it is often helpful to know what software is available to support various activities that relate to the topics of the course. For a directory of tools, see: http://coptr.digipres.org/

Week 1 (January 11) - Preamble - Troubling the Interface

Digital technologies function through (layers upon layers) of representation. What we see on the screen is a representation of many underlying processes, both material and logical. Throughout the course, we'll be delving into these many layers in detail, but first we'll need to enter through the interface, the surface layer through which we actually work with digital information.

We'll also discuss all of the boring (but necessary) mechanics of the class: the structure of the semester, the assignments and expectations, the topics we'll cover, and why the topics are important to understand when managing digital collections.

Read:

O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Interface (149-152)]

C - Drucker, Johanna. Graphesis: Visual Forms of Knowledge Production. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014. [Read: Interface and Interpretation (138-179)]

For the second half of class, we will go listen to Stuart Geiger's talk, "Computational Ethnography and the Ethnography of Computation."

Week 2 (January 18) - Technology, a Social Animal

The historian and theorist of technology Melvin Kranzberg has said that "technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral." Part of what this quotation suggests is that technology is always and already embedded in social, historical, and cultural contexts. No technology is intrinsically good or bad, but technologies can be put towards both righteous and nefarious ends. These many contextual dimensions inform how technologies develop, get used, and become obsolete. Throughout the semester, we'll be considering social, cultural, political, and economic aspects of computers, and digital technologies more broadly. This week, we'll lay some of the foundations for thinking about technology through these lenses.

Read:

O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Algorithm (15-20)]

W, R - Lessig, Lawrence. Code: Version 2.0. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2006. http://codev2.cc/ [Read: Code is Law (1-9), Regulating Code (61-80)]

C - Tenner, Edward. "Ever Since Frankenstein." In Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences, 3-32. New York, NY: Knopf, 1996.

C - Winner, Langdon. "Do Artifacts Have Politics?" Daedalus 109, no. 1 (1980): 121-36.

Other Related Readings

Week 3 (January 25) - Technological Components: Historical Origins and Interoperability

This week, we'll take a broad historical overview of the development of computing technologies and information systems. As we've already discussed, these systems do not develop in a vacuum, and Ceruzzi's text will give us a strong sense of the historical factors (people, funding, imaginaries, etc.) that shaped the field.

In class, we'll be thinking about the implications of this history for the interoperability of systems. Cultural heritage institutions (especially archives, which work with heterogeneous digital collections) need to make wildly different systems work together. Taking a look at the broader history of computing technologies will help us to understand the challenges (and benefits!) of achieving interoperability.

Read:

O - Ceruzzi, Paul. A History of Modern Computing. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. [Read the whole book]

Other Related Readings

Week 4 (February 1) - General Overview of Computer Architecture

Now we're getting to the real heart of what makes a computer tick (excuse the mixed metaphor!). We'll look at the main hardware and software components, and the relative roles and relationships among these main components.

Read:

O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Computing Power (55-63)].

C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Building Blocks and System Architecture (113-117)]

B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How Motherboards Conduct a Symphony of Data (43-51), The Origins of Computer DNA (132-137, 150-153), How a PC Keeps It Cool (186-187)]

Other Related Readings

Week 5 (February 8) - How to Read a Bit - Storage, Signal Detection and the Logic of Bits

As cultural heritage professionals, bits are the stuff we really care about. The digital objects in our collections are all made up of bits, and the absolute baseline of digital preservation is to ensure that the bits themselves remain safe and secure. We'll consider how bits are stored, processed, made renderable, and (gasp) corrupted.

Read:

O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Memory (184-192)]

C, R - Kernighan, Brian W. "Bits, Bytes, and Representation of Information." In D Is for Digital: What a Well-Informed Person Should Know About Computers and Communications, 21-34. DisforDigital.net, 2012.

C, R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Bytes and Hex (180-189)]

W - Rosenthal, David S. H, Daniel C. Rosenthal, Ethan L. Miller, Ian F. Adams, Mark W. Storer, and Erez Zadok. "The Economics of Long-Term Digital Storage." Paper presented at Memory of the World in the Digital Age. September 26-28, 2012, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. http://www.lockss.org/locksswp/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/unesco2012.pdf

B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [The Ghostly Legos of Computing (8-17), How Computers Remember (19-27), How a Little Microprocessor Does Big Things (29-41), How the Workaday Floppy Drive Ruled (138-139), How Little Bits Add Up to Big Changes (158-159), How Small Mutations Pay Off Big (162-167), How Devices Capture Light (216-217), How Printers Put Data in Our Hands (322-335)]

Other Related Readings

Week 6 (February 15) - Representation Information (Part 1)

Bits are the stuff of digital objects, but they do not mean much if we cannot represent these in the form of text, image, audio, video, and all other manner of cultural mateial. This week and next, we'll examine how bits get represented in many different ways.

Read:

O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Codecs (48-52)]

W - Rothenberg, Jeff. "Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Information." Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, 1999. http://www.clir.org/pubs/archives/ensuring.pdf (2-11)]

B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How Applications Works So you Can Play (75-93), How Computers Create New Worlds (98-103), How Prime Numbers Protect Prime Secrets (124-125), How File Compression Makes Files Smaller (160-161), How Computers Capture Memories (194-199), How Codes Keep Track of Everything (Everything!) (220-221), How Computers Tickle Your Ears (240-247)]

Other Related Readings

Week 7 (February 22) - Representation Information (Part 2) - Text Encoding and Structure

Our journey into the world of representation information continues.

Read:

C, O - DeRose, Steven J., David G. Durand, Elli Mylonas, and Allen H. Renear. “What Is Text, Really?” ACM SIGDOC Asterisk Journal of Computer Documentation 21, no. 3 ([1990] 1997): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1145/264842.264843. [Also take a look at "Further Context for 'What is Text, Really?'", also in Sakai]

C - Haralambous, Yannis, and P. Scott Horne. Fonts & Encodings. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, 2007. [Introduction (1-17); Before Unicode (27-52 (skimming 29-50 to get an idea of the various types of encoding)); Characters, glyphs, bytes: An introduction to Unicode (53-93 (skimming 62-93 to get an idea of the complexity and scope of Unicode)); Properties of Unicode characters (95-125 (skim to become familiar with categories of character properties)); Fonts and Web Pages (315-366, familiarize yourself with the main ways that fonts are identified and represented on the Web)]

C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Information Content (108-111); Data Sharing (415-423)]

B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How the Impact Printer Was Right on the Spot (142-143), How eInk Puts Words on Your eReader (174-175), How Optical Character Recognition Works (222-223), How Printers Make Cookie Cutter Text (318-319), How Outline Fonts Set the Imagination Free (320-321)]

Other Related Readings

Week 8 (March 1) - Identifiers for Digital Objects

What do web addresses, the file names for your digital vacation photos, and quick response codes all have in common? They're all digital object identifiers! We'll discuss the role that identifiers play in managing digital collections, differences between local and global identifiers, and why it's important (but difficult) for identifiers to be persistent over time.

Read:

W - Campbell, Douglas. "Identifying the Identifiers." Paper presented at the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Singapore, August 27-31, 2007. http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/index.php/pubs/article/download/868/864

W - Hilse, Hans-Werner, and Jochen Kothe. Implementing Persistent Identifiers: Overview of Concepts, Guidelines and Recommendations. London: Consortium of European Research Libraries, 2006. http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/edoc/ah/2006/hilse_kothe/urn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Agbv%3A7-isbn-90-6984-508-3-8.pdf [Pay particular attention to the following pages: 1-7, 40-48]

W - Lyons, Susan. "Persistent Identification of Electronic Documents and the Future of Footnotes." Law Library Journal 97, no. 4 (2005): 681-94. https://web.archive.org/web/20101119151856/http://aallnet.org/products/pub_llj_v97n04/2005-42.pdf

Related Video of Possible Interest: Van de Sompel, Herbert, Robert Sanderson, and Michael Nelson. "Memento: Time Travel for the Web." Coalition for Networked Information Fall 2009 Membership Meeting, December 14-15, 2009, Washington, DC. http://vimeo.com/8365394 [See especially the first 15 minutes, in which Van de Sompel articulates the resource referencing problems being addressed by Memento.]

Other Related Readings

Week 9 (March 8) - Operating Systems and File Systems

Switching from one operating system (OS) to another (from Mac to Windows, for example), you realize just how much the OS shapes your interaction with the machine. Beyond the interface, though, the OS is responsible for much more. We'll consider in more depth what the OS does and differences between various OS's. We'll think about the implications of all of this for managing digital collections. For instance, software is often dependent upon a particular OS. So what should you do when you have older software in your collection that you can no longer run on current OS's??? Stay tuned.

Read:

W - Harper, Richard, Eno Thereska, Siân Lindley, Richard Banks, Phil Gosset, William Odom, Gavin Smyth, and Eryn Whitworth. “What Is a File?” Technical Report. Seattle: Microsoft Research Ltd, 2011. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/MSR-TR-2011-109.pdf.

C, R - St. Amant, Robert. "Operating Systems: Working Together." In Computing for Ordinary Mortals, 108-130. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

W - Cocciolo, Anthony. "Unix Commands and Batch Processing for the Reluctant Librarian or Archivist." Code4Lib Journal 23 (2014). http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/9158

B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [Operating Systems and Other Software and The Devolution of the OS (61-63)]

Other Related Readings

Week 10 (March 15) - Spring Break 8-)

Week 11 (March 22) - Making and Running Software - Essential Components

With special guest lecturer Patrick Golden!

From web browsers to the calculators on our phones, we use all kinds of software to do all kinds of things, both grand and minute. We'll look at how software gets programmed and interpreted through myriad interactions with both humans and machines.

Read:

O - Chapters 7-9 from: Hunt, Andrea and David Thomas. The Pragmatic Programmer. Addison-Wesley Professional, 1999. http://proquestcombo.safaribooksonline.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/020161622X.

C, R - Kernighan, Brian W. "Programming and Programming Languages." D Is for Digital: What a Well-Informed Person Should Know About Computers and Communications, 65-83. DisforDigital.net, 2012.

C, R - St. Amant, Robert. "Programming: Putting Plans Into Action." In Computing for Ordinary Mortals, 81-107. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013.

B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [How Words are Stitched into Programs (65-73), How Security Software Fights Off Invaders (112-117)]

Other Related Readings

Week 12 (March 29) - Moving Bits around - Input/Output and Networks

Welcome back from break! We'll jump right back into things by discussing how you actually get bits in (or out!) of a computer. If you've ever used a USB drive or sent an e-mail, you're already an expert at this, but we'll think through what is actually going on when we're moving bits around through both technical and socio-cultural lenses.

Read:

C - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [Read: Import/Export (119-124)]

C, R - Garrido, José M., and Richard Schlesinger. Principles of Modern Operating Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008. [The I/O System (219-244)]

C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Networked Computing Infrastructure and The Internet (118-131); Two Host Architectures and Three-Tier Client-Server Architecture (140-148); Network Architecture and Protocols (517-538)]

B, R - White, Ron and Timothy Edward Downs. How Computers Work. 10th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2014. [The Origins of Computer DNA (144-149), How USB Really is Universal (156-157), How Networks Tie Computers Together (256-265), How the Internet Brings Us the World (267-285), How the Web Puts it All at your Fingertips (288-293), How Email Outraces Snail Mail (300-301)]

Other Related Readings

Week 13 (April 5) - Industry Patterns, Players, Relationships and Trends

We'll take a step back from computers, software, and bits to examine the industries, organizations, entities, and networks that shape how all of this information technology gets created, distributed, and used. We'll especially focus on the role and position of cultural heritage institutions in this broader landscape. How do these other entities affect us, and how do we also exert influence?

Read:

O - Fuller, Matthew, ed. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. [ Read: Internationalization (153-160)]

C - Rinehart, Richard, and Jon Ippolito. Re-Collection: Art, New Media, and Social Memory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014. [Read: Death by Technology (31-46)]

C, O, R - Messerschmitt, David G. and Clemens Szyperski. Software Ecosystem: Understanding an Indispensable Technology and Industry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005. [Read: Software Supply Industry (171-197)] http://www.netlibrary.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=100089

Other Related Readings

Week 14 (April 12) - Organizational and Conceptual Approaches

In the final few weeks of the course, we'll think about computing technologies and informaiton systems at an organizational level, specifically in cultural heritage institutional contexts. How do we take all of the great knowledge that we've gained and apply it to making informed decisions about our digital collections?

Read:

C, R - Axelrod, Robert, and Michael D. Cohen. Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1999. [Introduction (1-31); Conclusion (152-160)]

W - Lee, Cal. "Never Optimize: Building & Managing a Robust Cyberinfrastructure." History and Theory of Infrastructure: Distilling Lessons for New Scientific Cyberinfrastructures, Ann Arbor, MI, September 28 - October 1, 2006. http://ils.unc.edu/callee/never-optimize.pdf

Other Related Readings

Week 15 (April 19) - Architectural and System Design Approaches

We'll continue thinking about how we make informed decisions about our digital collections, focusing on the architecture and design of information systems. How do our various information systems fit together, or perhaps more frequently, fail to fit together? Building standards is one approach to overcoming disjunctions between various information systems, but these processes are embedded in contested political, social, and cultural contexts. That is to say, 'standards' are complicated affairs, deserving close attention and critical consideration, but there are no easy answers or straightforward conlcusions here!

Read:

O - Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. [Read: The Internet in the Arena of International Standards (147-179)]. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/lib/unc/detail.action?docID=3338844

C - Cargill, Carl F. "A History of Standards" and "A User Perspective on Technical Standardization." In Open Systems Standardization: A Business Approach, 14-25, 89-96. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

C - Seacord, Robert, Daniel Plakosh, and Grace Lewis. "The Legacy Crisis," "Understanding the Legacy System," and "Recommendations." Modernizing Legacy Systems: Software Technologies, Engineering Processes and Business Practices, 1-17, 57-67, 303-308. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley, 2003.

Other Related Readings

Week 16 (April 26) - Synthesis and Conclusions

We'll take this final week to wrap things up and reflect on what we've learned. We'll also consider the role that cultural heritage institutions can (and should??) play in the larger information society.

Read:

W - Lynch, Clifford. “Stewardship in the ‘Age of Algorithms.’” First Monday 22, no. 12 (December 2, 2017). http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/8097.

W - Van de Sompel, Herbert, and Michael L. Nelson. "Reminiscing about 15 Years of Interoperability Efforts." D-Lib Magazine 21, no. 11/12 (2015). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november15/vandesompel/11vandesompel.html

Assignment Descriptions

Participation (20%)

You will be expected to come to class each week, having completed the readings and being fully prepared to discuss. While the readings and the class sessions will cover a lot of specific pieces of information, I am especially interested in your thoughts, insights, and opinions. How might a particular issue raised in the readings manifest in your professional life? Do you disagree with anything raised in the readings?

By Wednesday (at the latest) each week, I will post a few questions for us to consider in the Forums section of the Sakai site. You should look these over and be prepared to discuss these points in class, but you are NOT required to submit any responses. However, I will encourage all of us to add thoughts, notes, and links to relevant resources or articles during class in these weekly forum posts. Especially if you are shy, or are less compelled to contribute to class discussions verbally, you can still participate by writing things in this space.

Weekly Paper Assignments (50%)

Each week, you will write a one page (single spaced, 12 pt font, 1" margins) response to a prompt related to the concerns of that week. I will post the prompt after class, and you will have until 5pm on Saturday to turn in the assignment to the drop box on Sakai. You will complete 10 total assignments, meaning that you can choose 2 weeks at any point in the semester to skip the assignment.

These prompts will ask you to consider an issue related to both the readings and the class discussion for that week. In all cases, though, there will be no 'right' answer. Rather, the questions will be open-ended, and will require you to reflect and weigh in, supporting your answer with reasoned arguments.

Each assignment will be graded out of 10 points, for a total of 100 points over all 10 assignmets. I will grade assignments based on a combination of writing (clarity and precision of expression), original thinking and insight, and a demonstration of comprehension of key concepts. A complete grading rubic with a breakdown of points will be provided on Sakai.

Final Exam (30%)

The final exam will be held in class at our appointed exam time (see below). The exam will consist of brief definition questions and a series of short essay questions. The definition questions will ask you to explain some core concept in your own words and provide a relevant example (e.g. what is an operating system?). For the essay questions, I will provide you with 5 questions, of which you will answer 3. As with the weekly paper assignments, there will be no 'right' answer to these questions; instead, I will be looking for you to think critically and analytically through some open-ended problem.

The Final Exam will be held on Monday, May 7 at 12:00p (noon) in Manning 117.


Other Related Readings by Week:

Week 2 - Technology - Definition, Characteristics and Social Dynamics

O - Bowker, Geoffrey C., and Susan Leigh Star. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. http://search.lib.unc.edu/search?R=UNCb8696332

W - Imaging the Internet: A History and Forecast. http://www.elon.edu/predictions/

W - Kling, Rob. "What Is Social Informatics and Why Does It Matter?" D-Lib Magazine 5, no. 1 (1999). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/kling/01kling.html

C - Sproull, Lee S., and Sara Kiesler. "Beyond Efficiency." and "A Two-Level Perspective on Technology." In Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization, 1-17 and 19-35. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

Week 3 - Technological Components: Historical Origins and Interoperability

O - Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/lib/unc/detail.action?docID=3338844

W - "Babbage Difference Engine in Motion." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jiRgdaknJCg

W - Besser, Howard. "Digital Longevity." In Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Tool for Preservation and Access, edited by Maxine K. Sitts. Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2000. http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/~howard/Papers/sfs-longevity.html

Brown, Adrian. "Preservation." In Archiving Websites: A Practical Guide for Information Management Professionals, 82-126. London: Facet, 2006.

W - Computer History Museum. "Timeline of Computer History." http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/

W - Digital Preservation and Technology Timeline. Cornell University Library. http://www.library.cornell.edu/iris/tutorial/dpm/timeline/index.html

W - Hilton, Michael L. "How the Comptometer Works" 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbJpufimfdM

W - IT History Society. http://www.ithistory.org/

W - Kay, Russell. "35 Technologies that shaped the industry." Computerworld. September 30, 2002. http://www.computerworld.com/managementtopics/management/story/0,10801,74632,00.html

W- McDonough, Jerome. "Structural Metadata and the Social Limitation of Interoperability: A Sociotechnical View of XML and Digital Library Standards Development." Paper presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference, August 12-15, 2008. http://www.balisage.net/Proceedings/vol1/html/McDonough01/BalisageVol1-McDonough01.html

W - Metadata Basics. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. http://dublincore.org/metadata-basics/ [See especiaily the four levels of interoperability.]

W - Moore, Reagan. "Towards a Theory of Digital Preservation." International Journal of Digital Curation 1, No. 3 (2008). http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/viewFile/63/42

Shasha, Dennis Elliott, and Cathy A. Lazere. Out of Their Minds: The Lives and Discoveries of 15 Great Computer Scientists. New York: Copernicus, 1995.

C - Smith, Richard E. "A Historical Overview of Computer Architecture." Annals of the History of Computing 10, no. 4 (1989): 277-303.

R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Milestones in Computer Architecture, 13-26]

O - Tzitzikas, Yannis. "Dependency Management for the Preservation of Digital Information." In Database and Expert Systems Applications, 582-92. Berlin: Springer, 2007.

Week 4 - General Overview of Computer Architecture

R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Chapter 2 (Computer Systems Organization): 51-134]

Week 5 - How to Read a Bit - Storage, Signal Detection and the Logic of Bits

O - Bairavasundaram, Lakshmi N., Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau, Garth R. Goodson, and Bianca Schroeder. "An Analysis of Data Corruption in the Storage Stack." ACM Transactions on Storage 4, no. 3 (2008). http://doi.acm.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/10.1145/1416944.1416947

O - Balkestein, Marjan, and Heiko Tjalsma. "The ADA Approach: Retro-Archiving Data in an Academic Environment." Archival Science 7, no. 1 (2007): 89-105.

W - Brezinski, Dominique, and Tom Killalea. "Guidelines for Evidence Collection and Archiving." Request for Comments 3227. 2002. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3227.txt

W - Brown, Adrian. “Selecting Storage Media for Long-Term Preservation.” London: The National Archives. June 19, 2003. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/selecting_storage_media.pdf

W - Byers, Fred R. "Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs: A Guide for Librarians and Archivists." Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub121abst.html

O - Carrier, Brian. "Computer Foundations." In File System Forensic Analysis, 17-45. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/0321268172/ch02 [See also "Hard Disk Data Acquisition" (47-66).]

Cohen, Tyler, and Amber Schroader. Alternate Data Storage Forensics. Burlington, MA: Syngress, 2007. [Includes extraction of data from handheld devices, e-mail, routers, CD, DVD and MP3 files]

O - Cornwell, Michael. "Anatomy of a Solid-state Drive." ACM Queue. October 17, 2012. http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2385276

Crowley, Paul, and Dave Kleiman. CD and DVD Forensics. Rockland, MA: Syngress, 2007.

W - “Data Recovery.” Microsoft Help and Support. Jully 9, 2008. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/835840/EN-GB/

W - del Pozo, Nicholas, Douglas Elford, and David Pearson. “Mediapedia: Managing the Identification of Media Carriers.” In Proceedings of DigCCurr2009: Digital Curation: Practice, Promise, and Prospects, edited by Helen R. Tibbo, Carolyn Hank, Christopher A. Lee, and Rachael Clemens, 76-78. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, School of Information and Library Science, 2009. http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/proceedings-of-digccurr2009-digital-curation-practice-promise-and-prospects/4994819 [See also the conference demo presentation: http://www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr2009/3d-pearson.pdf]

C - Dobrustina, Svetlana A., Svetlana I. Ganicheva, Irina G. Tikhonova, Tatiana D. Velikova, and Pavel E. Zavalishin. "Influence of the External Factors on the Lifetime of Information Recorded on DVD±R." Restaurator 28 (2008): 29-43.

C - Dollar, Charles M. "Appendix 5 – Media Life Expectancy Disposition Charts." In Authentic Electronic Records: Strategies for Long-Term Access, 215-222. Chicago, IL: Cohasset Associates, 1999.

O - Elerath, Jon. "Hard-Disk Drives: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly." Communications of the ACM 52, no. 6 (2009): 38-45. http://doi.acm.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/10.1145/1516046.1516059

W - Elford, Douglas, Nicholas Del Pozo, Snezana Mihajlovic, David Pearson, Gerard Clifton, and Colin Webb. "Media Matters: Developing Processes for Preserving Digital Objects on Physical Carriers at the National Library of Australia." Paper presented at the 74th IFLA General Conference and Council, Québec, Canada, August 10-14, 2008. http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla74/papers/084-Webb-en.pdf

W - Farley, Jonathan. "An Introduction to New Media." Public Record Office, 1999. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=B4BF35F8F75DF38121B1C3120F0B6196?doi=10.1.1.39.6616&rep=rep1&type=pdf

W - Farmer, Dan, and Wietse Venema. "Persistence of deleted file information." In Forensic Discovery. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://www.porcupine.org/forensics/forensic-discovery/chapter7.html

W - Fontana, R., G. Decad, and S. Hetzler. "Technology Roadmap Comparisons for TAPE, HDD, and NAND Flash: Implications for Data Storage Applications." http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/meetings/documents/storage12/5-Fontana-StorageMediaDenstiyfoRNANDTAPE.pdf

W - Garfinkel, Simson L., and Abhi Shelat. "Remembrance of Data Passed: A Study of Disk Sanitization Practices." IEEE Security and Privacy 1 (2003): 17-27. http://www.computer.org/portal/cms_docs_security/security/v1n1/garfinkel.pdf

C, R - Hillis, W. Daniel. The Pattern on the Stone: The Simple Ideas That Make Computers Work. 1st ed. New York: Basic Books, 1998. [Nuts and Bolts (1-19); Universal Building Blocks (21-38)]

Horowitz, Paul, and Winfield Hill. The Art of Electronics. 2nd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989. [See especially Digital Electronics (471-564); Microcomputers (673-742); Microprocessors (743-826)]

C - Iraci, Joe. "The Relative Stabilities of Optical Disc Formats." Restaurator 26, no. 2 (2005): 134-50.

W - John, Jeremy Leighton. "Adapting Existing Technologies for Digitally Archiving Personal Lives: Digital Forensics, Ancestral Computing, and Evolutionary Perspectives and Tools." Paper presented at iPRES 2008: The Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, UK, September 29-30, 2008. http://www.bl.uk/ipres2008/presentations_day1/09_John.pdf

R - Jones, Keith J., Richard Bejtlich, and Curtis W. Rose. Real Digital Forensics: Computer Security and Incident Response. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2006. [See especially: "Acquiring a Forensic Duplication" (161-204), "Common Forensic Analysis Techniques" (207-246), "Forensic Duplication and Analysis of Personal Digital Assistants" (515-570), “Forensic Duplication of USB and Compact Flash Memory Devices” (571-576), "Forensic Analysis of USB and Compact Flash Memory Devices" (577-594).]

Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. Mechanisms: New Media and the Forensic Imagination. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008. [See especially 50-53, 58-67, 89-96]

W - Kuphaldt, Tony. R. "Principles of Digital Computing." Lessons In Electric Circuits. Volume 4. http://www.ibiblio.org/kuphaldt/electricCircuits/Digital/DIGI_16.html

W - Media Preservation (Blog). Media Preservation Initiative at Indiana University Bloomington. http://mediapreservation.wordpress.com/

C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [125-127]

Meza, Justin, Qiang Wu, Sanjeev Kumar, and Onur Mutlu. "A Large-Scale Study of Flash Memory Failures in the Field." In Proceedings of SIGMETRICS’15, June 15–19, 2015, Portland, OR, USA.

C, R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Bit by Bit by Bit (69-85)]

W - Pharr, Matt, and Greg Humphreys. "Sampling and Reconstruction." In Physically Based Rendering: From Theory to Implementation, 279-367. Boston, MA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004. http://graphics.stanford.edu/~mmp/chapters/pbrt_chapter7.pdf

W - Puglia, Steve. “Creating Permanent and Durable Information: Physical Media and Storage Standards.” CRM: Cultural Resource Management 22, no. 2 (1999): 25-27. http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/22-2/22-02-10.pdf

Reid, Roger, Gareth Fraser-King, and W. David Schwaderer. "Data Lifecycles and Tiered Storage Architectures." In Data Lifecycles: Managing Data for Strategic Advantage, 145-166. Chichester, England; Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

W - Rosenthal, David S.H. "Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?" Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects (iPRES), London, UK, September 29-30, 2008. http://www.bl.uk/ipres2008/presentations_day2/43_Rosenthal.pdf

W - Rosenthal, David. "The Medium-Term Prospects for Long-Term Storage Systems." December 13, 2016. http://blog.dshr.org/2016/12/the-medium-term-prospects-for-long-term.html

W - Ross, Seamus, and Ann Gow. "Digital Archaeology: Rescuing Neglected and Damaged Data Resources." London: British Library, 1999. http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/elib/papers/supporting/pdf/p2.pdf

W - Stahiamoorthy, Mahesh. "Dummies Guide to Erasure Coding." July 1, 2012. http://smahesh.com/blog/2012/07/01/dummies-guide-to-erasure-coding/

W - Sawyer, Donald. “Persistent Preservation Challenge: Experience and Recommendations.” Presented at DigCCurr 2009: Digital Curation Practice, Promise and Prospects, Chapel Hill, NC, April 1-3, 2009. http://www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr2009/5d-sawyer.pdf

W - Schmid, Patrick, and Achim Roos. "RAID Recovery: The Data Knight Kroll Ontrack to the Rescue!" February 14, 2007. http://www.tomshardware.com/2007/02/14/raid_recovery/

W - Schroeder, Bianca, and Garth A. Gibson. "Disk Failures in the Real World: What Does an MTTF of 1,000,000 Hours Mean to You?" Paper presented at the 5th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies 2007. http://www.usenix.org/events/fast07/tech/schroeder/schroeder_html/index.html

W - Shannon, Claude Elwood. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." Bell System Technical Journal 27 (1948): 379-423, 623-56. http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/what/shannonday/shannon1948.pdf

W - Smorul, Mike, Joseph JaJa, Fritz McCall, Susan Fitch Brown, Reagan Moore, Richard Marciano, Sheau-Yen Chen, Rick Lopez, and Robert Chadduck. "Recovery of a Digital Image Collection through the SDSC/UMD/NARA Prototype Persistent Archive." UMIACS Technical Report. 2003. https://wiki.umiacs.umd.edu/adapt/images/a/ab/UMIACS-TR-2003-105.pdf

W - Smorul, Michael, Sangchul Song, and Joseph JaJa . “An Implementation of the Audit Control Environment (ACE) to Support the Long Term Integrity of Digital Archives.” In Proceedings of DigCCurr2009: Digital Curation: Practice, Promise, and Prospects, edited by Helen R. Tibbo, Carolyn Hank, Christopher A. Lee, and Rachael Clemens, 164-169. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, School of Information and Library Science, 2009. http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/proceedings-of-digccurr2009-digital-curation-practice-promise-and-prospects/4994819

W - Song, S. and JaJa, J. "ACE: A Novel Software Platform to Ensure the Integrity of Long Term Archives". In Proceedings of Archiving 2007. 2007: IS&T, https://wiki.umiacs.umd.edu/adapt/images/5/51/Rad71E67.pdf

R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Chapter 3 (The Digital Logic Level): 135-230]

W - Transition to Advanced Format 4K Sector Hard Drives. Seagate Technology. http://www.seagate.com/tech-insights/advanced-format-4k-sector-hard-drives-master-ti/

W - Underwood, William E. "The Presidential Electronic Records Pilot System: Results of Laboratory Experiments and Use by Archivists." Georgia Tech Research Institute, 2003. http://perpos.gtri.gatech.edu/perpos/publications/TR2003-01.pdf

W - Underwood, W.E. and S.L. Laib. “PERPOS: An Electronic Records Repository and Archival Processing System.” Paper presented at DigCCurr2007: An International Symposium on Digital Curation, Chapel Hill, NC, April 18-20, 2007. http://ils.unc.edu/digccurr2007/papers/underwood_paper_6-3.pdf [See also conference presentation: http://ils.unc.edu/digccurr2007/slides/underwood_slides_6-3.pdf]

W - Watts, Carl. "Tiered Storage and LC Storage Environment Update." http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/meetings/documents/storage12/3-Watts-TieredStorageDefined-v7_20120917_final-1.pdf

Woods, Kam, and Geoffrey Brown. "From Imaging to Access - Effective Preservation of Legacy Removable Media." In Archiving 2009: Preservation Strategies and Imaging Technologies for Cultural Heritage Institutions and Memory Organizations: Final Program and Proceedings, 213-18. Springfield, VA: Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009. [For discussion of ingesting and verifying CD-ROM disk images.]

Wright, Craig, Dave Kleiman, and Shyaam Sundhar. "Overwriting Hard Drive Data: The Great Wiping Controversy." In Information Systems Security: 4th International Conference, ICISS 2008, Hyderabad, India, December 16-20, 2008: Proceedings, edited by R. Sekar and A.K. Pujari, 243–57. Berlin: Springer, 2008.

Week 6 - Representation Information (Part 1)

W - Becker, Christoph, Andreas Rauber, Volker Heydegger, Jan Schnasse, and Manfred Thaller. "Systematic Characterisation of Objects in Digital Preservation: The Extensible Characterisation Languages." Journal of Universal Computer Science 14, no. 18 (2008): 2936-52. http://www.jucs.org/jucs_14_18/systematic_characterisation_of_objects

C - Born, Günter. The File Formats Handbook. London: International Thomson Computer Press, 1995. [Excerpts in Sakai]

W - Buckley, Robert. "JPEG 2000 - a Practical Digital Preservation Standard?" Digital Preservation Coalition, 2008. http://www.dpconline.org/docs/reports/dpctw08-01.pdf

W - Buonora, Paolo, and Franco Liberati. "A Format for Digital Preservation of Images: A Study on JPEG 2000 File Robustness." D-Lib Magazine 14, no. 7/8 (2008). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july08/buonora/07buonora.html

W - Burton, Adrian. “Infrastructure and Services for Digital Collections: Automated Obsolescence Notification” Presented at DigCCurr2007: An International Symposium on Digital Curation, Chapel Hill, NC, April 18-20, 2007. http://ils.unc.edu/digccurr2007/slides/burton_slides_4-2.pdf

W - Bussel, Sara van, and Frank Houtman. "Gap Analysis: A Survey of PA Tool Provision." PLANETS Project, 2009. http://www.planets-project.eu/docs/reports/PA2D3gapanalysis.pdf [See Appendix B for a list of file format migration tools.]

O - Dappert, Angela, and Adam Farquhar. "Significance Is in the Eye of the Stakeholder." In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 13th European Conference. ECDL 2009, Corfu, Greece, September 27 - October 2, 2009, Proceedings, edited by Maristella Agosti, José Borbinha, Sarantos Kapidakis, Christos Papatheodorou and Giannis Tsakonas, 297-308. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

C - Davis, Pete, and Mike Wallace. Windows Undocumented File Formats: Working inside 16- and 32- Bit Windows. Lawrence, KS: R&D Books, 1997. [Excerpts available in Blackboard]

W - Digital File Formats. Joint Information Systems Committee. http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/infokit/file_formats/digital-file-formats

Farid, Hany. "Digital Doctoring: How to Tell the Real from the Fake." Significance 3, no. 4 (2006): 162-66.

W - Hedstrom, Margaret and Christopher A. Lee. "Significant properties of digital objects: definitions, applications, implications." In Proceedings of the DLM-Forum 2002, Barcelona, 6–8 May 2002. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2002. 218-227. http://www.ils.unc.edu/callee/sigprops_dlm2002.pdf

W - Hedstrom, Margaret L., Christopher A. Lee, Judith S. Olson, and Clifford A. Lampe. "'The Old Version Flickers More': Digital Preservation from the User’s Perspective." American Archivist 69, no. 1 (2006): 159-87. http://www.ils.unc.edu/callee/dig-pres_users-perspective.pdf

O - Heydegger, Volker. "Just One Bit in a Million: On the Effects of Data Corruption in Files." In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 13th European Conference. ECDL 2009, Corfu, Greece, September 27 - October 2, 2009, Proceedings, edited by Maristella Agosti, José Borbinha, Sarantos Kapidakis, Christos Papatheodorou and Giannis Tsakonas, 315-26. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

R - Hillis, W. Daniel. The Pattern on the Stone: The Simple Ideas That Make Computers Work. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1998. [Memory: Information and Secret Codes, 91-106]

Kientzle, Tim. Internet File Formats. Scottsdale, AZ: Coriolis Group Books, 1995.

W - Knight, Gareth. "Framework for the Definition of Significant Properties." InSPECT Project. 2008. http://www.significantproperties.org.uk/documents/wp33-propertiesreport-v1.pdf

Kussmann, Ralf. PC File Formats & Conversions. Grand Rapids, MI: Abacus, 1990.

W - Lawrence, Gregory W., William R. Kehoe, Oya Y. Rieger, William H. Walters, and Anne R. Kenney. "Risk Management of Digital Information: A File Format Investigation." Washington, DC: Coalition on Library and Information Resources, 2000. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub93abst.html

W - McGarva, Guy, Steve Morris, and Greg Janée. "Preserving Geospatial Data." DPC Technology Watch Series. Digital Preservation Coalition, 2009. http://www.dpconline.org/docs/reports/dpctw09-01.pdf

C, R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [On data types (167-169)]

W - Murray, Kate. "Shaking the Email Format Family Tree." The Signal. April 4, 2014. http://blogs.loc.gov/digitalpreservation/2014/04/shaking-the-email-format-family-tree/

W - Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System. Washington, DC: Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0b1.pdf [Specifically: Information Definition (p.2-3 to 2-5); Logical Model for Archival Information up to section 4.2.1.4.2 (p.4-19 to 4-27)]

W - Pearson, David, and Colin Webb. "Defining File Format Obsolescence: A Risky Journey." International Journal of Digital Curation 3, no. 1 (2008): 89-106. http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/76

C, R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Fixed Point, Floating Point (335-348)]

W - Sergeant, Derek, and Paul Wheatley. "Survey and Assessment of Sources of Information on File Formats and Software Documentation: Final Report of the Representation and Rendering Project." University of Leeds, 2003. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/FileFormatsreport.pdf

Swan, Tom. Inside Windows File Formats. Indianapolis, IN: SAMS, 1993. [Covers Bitmap (.BMP), Icon (.ICO), Cursor (.CUR), Font (.FNT), Metafile (.WMF), Calendar (.CAL), Cardfile (.CRD), Clipboard Viewer (.CLP), Windows Write (.WRI), Group (.GRP), Program Information (.PIF), and Executable (.EXE) files]

Taylor, Allen G. File Format Handbook, The Lance A. Leventhal Microtrend Series. San Marcos, CA: Microtrend Books, 1992.

W - van der Knijff, Johan. "PDF/A as a preferred, sustainable format for spreadsheets?" December 9, 2016. http://openpreservation.org/blog/2016/12/09/pdfa-as-a-preferred-sustainable-format-for-spreadsheets/

Walden, Jeff. File Formats for Popular PC Software: A Programmer's Reference. New York: J. Wiley, 1986.

Walden, Jeff. More File Formats for Popular PC Software: A Programmer’s Reference. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

W - Woods, Kam, and Geoffrey Brown. "Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access." International Journal of Digital Curation 3, no. 2 (2008): 74-88. http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/88

Zhang, Allison B. File Formats on the Internet: A Guide for PC Users. Washington, DC: Special Libraries Association, 1996.

Week 7 - Representation Information (Part 2) - Text Encoding and Structure

W - Aven, Pete. "Enriching word documents with <w:CustomXML>: Part 5 in a series on MarkLogic Server and Office 2007." Mark Logic TechBlog. December 18, 2007. http://xqzone.marklogic.com/columns/smallchanges/2008-01-08.xqy.

W - Aven, Pete. “Excel-ing with XQuery: Part 2 in a series on MarkLogic Server and Office 2007.” Mark Logic TechBlog. December 4, 2007. http://xqzone.marklogic.com/columns/smallchanges/2007-12-04.xqy.

W - Aven, Pete. “A Final ‘Word’: Part 6 in a series on MarkLogic Server and Office 2007.” Mark Logic TechBlog. January 22, 2008. http://xqzone.marklogic.com/columns/smallchanges/.

W - Aven, Pete. “Office Logic.” Mark Logic TechBlog. November 27, 2007. http http://xqzone.marklogic.com/columns/smallchanges/2007-11-27.xqy.

W - Aven, Pete. “Running (a.k.a. <w:r>-ing) with Word: Part 4 in a series on MarkLogic Server and Office 2007.” Mark Logic TechBlog. December 18, 2007. http://developer.marklogic.com/columns/smallchanges/2007-12-18.xqy.

O - Byers, Simon. "Information Leakage Caused by Hidden Data in Published Documents." IEEE Security and Privacy 2, no. 2 (2004): 23-27.

W - Chou, Carol C.H., and Andrea Goethals. "Document Metadata: Document Technical Metadata for Digital Preservation." 2009. http://www.fcla.edu/digitalArchive/pdfs/documentMD.pdf

W - Fanning, Betsy A. "Preserving the Data Explosion: Using PDF." Silver Spring, MD: Digital Preservation Coalition and AIIM, 2008. http://www.dpconline.org/docs/reports/dpctw08-02.pdf

W - Garfinkel, Simson L., and James Migletz. "The New XML Office Document Files: Implications for Forensics." 2009. http://simson.net/clips/academic/2009.IEEE.DOCX.pdf

W - Jones, Jeffrey R. "Document Metadata and Computer Forensics." James Madison University, Department of Computer Science, 2006. http://www.infosec.jmu.edu/reports/jmu-infosec-tr-2006-003.pdf

C, R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [ASCII and a Cast of Characters (286-300)]

W - Rice, Frank. “Introducing the Office (2007) Open XML File Formats.” May 2006. http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa338205.aspx.

W - “The Top Ten Hidden Data Threats.” ManTech International. http://docdet.mantech.com/docdet/Presskit/The%20Top%20Ten%20Hidden%20Data%20Threats.pdf [Illustrates common cases of accidentally disclosing "hidden data" within files]

W - Wittern, Christian. "Character Encoding." In A Companion to Digital Literary Studies, edited by Ray Siemens and Susan Schreibman, 564-76. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007. http://www.digitalhumanities.org/companion/DLS/

Week 8 - Identifiers for Digital Objects

O - Buneman, Peter, Susan Davidson, and James Frew. "Why Data Citation is a Computational Problem." Communications of the ACM 59, no. 9 (2016): 50-57.

W - Case, Mike Casey, and Bruce Gordon. "Local Filenames." In Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation, 52-58. Harvard University, 2007. http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/papersPresent/sd_bp_07.pdf

W - LCCN Permalink. http://lccn.loc.gov/

W - Leach, Paul J., Michael Mealling, and Rich Salz. "A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace." Request for Comments 4122. Internet Society, 2005. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt

W - Nicholas, Nick, Nigel Ward, and Kerry Blinco. "A Policy Checklist for Enabling Persistence of Identifiers." D-Lib Magazine 15, no. 12 (2009). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january09/nicholas/01nicholas.html

W - Puglia, Steven, Jeffrey Reed, and Erin Rhodes. "File Naming." In Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access:
Creation of Production Master Files – Raster Images
, 60. College Park, MD: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/preservation/technical/guidelines.pdf

W - Riecks, David. " Recommendations for Limitations on Image Filenaming." http://www.controlledvocabulary.com/imagedatabases/filename_limits.html

W - Rosenberg, Scott. "Will Deep Links Ever Truly be Deep?" Backchannel. April 7, 2015. https://medium.com/backchannel/the-failed-promise-of-deep-links-aa307b3abaa5

W - Scherle, Ryan. "Filename Requirements for Digital Objects." http://wiki.dlib.indiana.edu/confluence/display/INF/Filename+Requirements+for+Digital+Objects

Week 10 - Operating Systems and File Systems

Bic, Lubomir, and Alan C. Shaw. Operating Systems Principles. Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. [See especially Part 3 - File Systems and Input/Output]

O, R- Carrier, Brian. "File System Analysis." In File System Forensic Analysis, 125-153. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/0321268172/ch08

W, R - Farmer, Dan, and Wietse Venema. "File System Basics." In Forensic Discovery. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2005. http://www.porcupine.org/forensics/forensic-discovery/chapter3.html

W - "Filesystems: A Brief Introduction." Linux Information Project (LINFO). http://www.linfo.org/filesystem.html

W- Gallagher, Sean. "The Great Disk Drive in the Sky: How Web giants store big--and we mean big--data." Ars Technica. January 27, 2012. http://arstechnica.com/business/news/2012/01/the-big-disk-drive-in-the-sky-how-the-giants-of-the-web-store-big-data.ars

C, R - Garrido, José M., and Richard Schlesinger. Principles of Modern Operating Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008. [Basic Concepts of Operating Systems (1-18); File Management (193-217)]

Hansen, Per Brinch. Operating System Principles, Prentice-Hall Series in Automatic Computation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973. [See especially: An Overview of Operating Systems (p.122) - for a historical perspective]

Hansen, Per Brinch, ed. Classic Operating Systems: From Batch Processing to Distributed Systems. New York, NY: Springer, 2001. [See especially first chapter by Hansen]

W - Kenlon, Seth. "How Linux got to be Linux: Test driving 1993-2003 distros." December 20, 2016. https://opensource.com/article/16/12/yearbook-linux-test-driving-distros

W - NTFS File Attribute Types. Microsoft NechNet. https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc938928.aspx

W- Salter, Jim. "Bitrot and atomic COWs: Inside “next-gen” filesystems." Ars Technica, January 15, 2014. http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2014/01/bitrot-and-atomic-cows-inside-next-gen-filesystems/

C, R - Silberschatz, Abraham, Peter Baer Galvin, Greg Gagne. Operating System Concepts. Seventh Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. [Excerpts in Sakai are: Storage Structure (8-10); Caching (24-26); File-System Interface (373-409)]

R - Tanenbaum, Andrew. Modern Operating Systems. 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. [Introduction (1-20, 34-63); File Systems (379-388, 393-399)]

R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [Example Operating Systems (470-500)]

W - Thomas, Susan, Renhart Gittens, Janette Martin, and Fran Baker. "Capturing directory structures." In Workbook on Digital Private Papers. 2007. http://www.paradigm.ac.uk/workbook/record-creators/capturing-directory-structures.html

Week 11 - Moving Bits around - Input/Output and Networks

W - Brain, Marshall. "How Domain Name Servers Work." HowStuffWorks. http://www.howstuffworks.com/dns.htm/printable

W - Brain, Marshall, and Tim Crosby. "How E-mail Works." HowStuffWorks. http://communication.howstuffworks.com/email.htm/printable

W- Caplan, Priscilla. "Repository to Repository Transfer of Enriched Archival Information Packages." D-Lib Magazine 14, no. 11/12 (2008). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november08/caplan/11caplan.html

Derfler, Frank J., Jr. and Les Freed. How Networks Work. 7th Edition. How it Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2004.

W - Fielding, Thomas Ray. "Representational State Transfer (REST)." In Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-Based Software Architectures. PhD Dissertation. 2000. http://roy.gbiv.com/pubs/dissertation/rest_arch_style.htm

Gralla, Preston. How the Internet Works. 8th Edition. How It Works Series. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2006.

W - Johnson, Brad C. "How Web Spoofing Works." SystemExperts Corporation. 1998. http://www.systemexperts.com/tutors/webspoof.pdf

W - Saunder, Jeff D., Charles R. McClure, and Lauren H. Mandel. "Broadband applications: Categories, requirements, and future frameworks." First Monday 17, no. 11 ( 2012). http://www.firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/4066/3355 [See especailly the tables related to the types of activities that various connection speeds can support.]

W - Schrenk, Michael. "Downloading Web Pages." In Webbots, Spiders, and Screen Scrapers: A Guide to Developing Internet Agents with PHP/CURL, 21-34. San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press, 2007. http://www.nostarch.com/download/webbots_ch3.pdf

W - Tyson, Jeff. "How Firewalls Work." HowStuffWorks. http://www.howstuffworks.com/firewall.htm/printable

W - Tyson, Jeff. "How Internet Infrastructure Works." HowStuffWorks. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet-infrastructure.htm/printable

W - "Internetworking Basics." In Internetworking Technology Handbook. Cisco Systems. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/internetworking/technology/handbook/Intro-to-Internet.html

Week 12 - Making and Running Software - Essential Components

W - Brain, Marshall. "How Computer Viruses Work." HowStuffWorks. http://www.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm/printable

Briggs, David. The Secret Rules of Modern Living: Algorithms. BBC Four: 2015.

W - Cook, Timothy. "A Regular Expression Search Primer for Forensic Analysts." SANS Institute, 2012. http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/forensics/regular-expression-search-primer-forensic-analysts_33929

Eilam, Eldad. Reversing: Secrets of Reverse Engineering. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley, 2005.

W - Gengenbach, Marty, et al. "OSS4EVA: Using Open-Source Tools to Fulfill Digital Preservation Requirements." Code4Lib Journal 34 (2016). http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/11940

R - Hillis, Daniel. Pattern on the Stone. Science Masters. Perseus, 1999. [Programming, 39-59]

R - Jones, Keith J., Richard Bejtlich, and Curtis W. Rose. "An Introduction to Perl." In Real Digital Forensics: Computer Security and Incident Response, 625-636. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2006.

Montfort, Nick, Patsy Baudoin, John Bell, Ian Bogost, Jeremy Douglass, Mark C. Marino, Michael Mateas, Casey Reas, Mark Sample, and Noah Vawter. 10 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1)):GOTO 10. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013. [A series of essays about a one-line Commodore 64 BASIC program.]

R - Petzold, Charles. Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. [Languages High and Low (349-362)]

R - Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Structured Computer Organization. Fifth ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. [The Assembly Language Level (507-546)]

Thomsett-Scott, Beth, ed. The Librarian's Introduction to Programming Languages. Rowman and Littlefield, 2016.

Week 13 - Industry Patterns, Players, Relationships and Trends

W - Besek, June M., Jessica Coates, Brian Fitzgerald, Wilma Mossink, William G. LeFurgy, Adrienne Muir, Mary Rasenberger, and Christopher D. Weston. “Digital Preservation and Copyright: An International Study.” International Journal of Digital Curation 2, no.3 (2008): 103-111. http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/viewFile/90/61

W - Bibliography - National Obsolescence Centre. http://www.nocweb.org/Documents/Bibliography.htm

W - Brain, Marshall. "How ASPs Work." HowStuffWorks. http://www.howstuffworks.com/asp.htm/printable

Clegg, Helen and Susan Montomery. “How to write an RFP for information products.” Information Outlook 10, no.6 (June 2006): 23-33.

W - Cyberinfrastructure Technology Watch. http://www.ctwatch.org/

W - DigiCULT Technology Watch Reports. http://www.digicult.info/pages/techwatch.php

W - Digital Curation Centre Technology Watch Papers. http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/technology-watch/

W - Digital Preservation Coalition Technology Watch reports. http://www.dpconline.org/graphics/reports/

C - David, Paul A. "Some New Standards for the Economics of Standardization in the Information Age." In Economic Policy and Technological Performance, edited by Partha Dasgupta and Paul Stoneman, 206-39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. [Source of orphan effect and "angry orphans."]

Hanseth, Ole, and Kalle Lyytinen. "Theorizing About the Design of Information Infrastructures: Design Kernel Theories and Principles." Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems 4, no. 12 (2004): 208-41.

W - JISC Technology and Standards Watch. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=techwatch_home

W - Lavoie, Brian, Lorraine Eakin, Amy Friedlander, Francine Berman, Paul Courant, Clifford Lynch, and Daniel Rubinfeld. "Sustaining the Digital Investment: Issues and Challenges of Economically Sustainable Digital Preservation." Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2008. http://brtf.sdsc.edu/biblio/BRTF_Interim_Report.pdf

W - Lyman, Peter, Hal R. Varian, Kirsten Swearingen, Peter Charles, Nathan Good, Laheem Lamar Jordan, and Joyojeet Pal. "How Much Information? 2003" http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/ [Executive Summary is at: http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/execsum.htm]

R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [204-215, 231-241 (Economics and Policy), 242-254 (economics of information)]

Monteiro, Eric. "Scaling Information Infrastructure: The Case of Next Generation IP in Internet." The Information Society 14, no. 3 (1998): 229-45.

W - Moore, Gordon E. "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits." Electronics 38, No. 8 (1965). http://download.intel.com/research/silicon/moorespaper.pdf

W - Moore, Richard L., Jim D'Aoust, Robert McDonald, and David Minor. "Disk and Tape Storage Cost Models." In Archiving 2007: Final Program and Proceedings, May 21-24, 2007, Arlington, Virginia, 29-32. Springfield, VA: Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007. http://users.sdsc.edu/~mcdonald/content/papers/dt_cost.pdf

Rogers, Everett M. Diffusion of Innovations. 4th ed. New York, NY: Free Press, 1995. [See especially: Elements of Diffusion, 1-35 - same chapter is available in the Fifth Edition (2003)]

W - Singh, Pameet, and Peter Sandborn. "Obsolescence Driven Design Refresh Planning for Sustainment-Dominated Systems." Engineering Economist 51, No. 2 (2006): 115-139. http://www.enme.umd.edu/ESCML/Papers/EngEconMOCA.pdf

O - Solomon, Rajeev, Peter A. Sandborn, and Michael G. Pecht. "Electronic Part Life Cycle Concepts and Obsolescence Forecasting." IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies 23, no. 4 (2000).

O - Stogdill, Ronald C. "Dealing with Obsolete Parts." IEEE Design & Test of Computers 16, no. 2 (1999): 17-25.

W - Tuomi, Ilkka. "The Lives and Death of Moore's Law." First Monday 7, No. 11 (November 2002). http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_11/tuomi/index.html

Week 14 - Organizational and Conceptual Approaches

R - Bantin, Philip C. “Transaction Processing Systems Constructed on the Relational Database Model.” In Understanding Data and Information Systems for Recordkeeping, 65-128. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman, 2008.

W - Being Fluent with Technology. Washington, DC: National Research Council, 1999. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030906399X [See Intellectual Capabilities for FITness (elaborated on p.21-27)]

Bennett, K.H, M.Ramage, and M.Munro. "A Decision Model for Legacy Systems." IEE Proceedings - Software 146, no. 3 (1999): 153-159.

C - Breakfield, Charles V., and Roxanne E. Burkey. "The Migration Process." In Managing Systems Migrations and Upgrades: Demystifying the Technology Puzzle, 145-201. Amsterdam: Digital Press, 2002.

W - Conway, Paul. "Preservation in the Digital World." Washington, DC: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1996. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/conway2/

R - Currall, James. "Security and the Digital Domain." In Record Keeping in a Hybrid Environment: Managing the Creation, Use, Preservation and Disposal of Unique Information Objects in Context, edited by Alistair G. Tough and Michael Moss, 47-68. Oxford: Chandos, 2006.

O - Dalcher, Darren. "Design for Evolution: Fostering Continuity and Responding to Change." In Managing Corporate Information Systems Evolution and Maintenance, edited by Khaled M. Khan and Yan Zhang, 24-50. Hershey, PA: Idea Group, 2005. http://www.netlibrary.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=108377

W - "DIRKS [Designing and Implementing Recordkeeping Systems]: A Strategic Approach to Managing Business Information." National Archives of Australia, 2003. http://www.naa.gov.au/records-management/publications/DIRKS-manual.aspx

W - Glick, Kevin, and Eliot Wilczek. "Ingest Guide." Tufts University and Yale University, 2006. http://dca.lib.tufts.edu/features/nhprc/reports/ingest/index.html

W - Glick, Kevin, and Eliot Wilczek. "Maintain Guide." Tufts University and Yale University, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/10427/1286

W - Green, Ann, Stuart Macdonald, and Robin Rice. "Policy-Making for Research Data in Repositories: A Guide." Edinburgh, UK: EDINA and University Data Library, University of Edinburgh, 2009. http://www.disc-uk.org/docs/guide.pdf

Hanseth, Ole, Eric Monteiro, and Morten Hatling. "Developing Information Infrastructure Standards: The Tension between Standardisation and Flexibility." Science, Technology and Human Values 21, no. 4 (1996): 407-26.

Hargadon, Andrew B., and Yellowlees Douglas. "When Innovations Meet Institutions: Edison and the Design of the Electric Light." Administrative Science Quarterly 46, no. 3 (2001): 476-501.[See especially their concept of "robust design"]

W - Higgins, Sarah. “ISO 15489: Information and Documentation — Records Management.” Digital Curation Centre. 2007. http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resource/standards-watch/iso-15489/

Lee, Christopher A. "Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model." In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, Third Edition, edited by Marcia J. Bates and Mary Niles Maack. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009. http://www.ils.unc.edu/callee/p4020-lee.pdf

W - Lehman, Meir M. "Laws of Software Evolution Revisited." Paper presented at the European Workshop on Software Process Technology 1996. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/lehman96laws.html

Lehman, M. Meir, and L. A. Belady, eds. Program Evolution: Processes of Software Change. London; Orlando: Academic Press, 1985. [See especially: Laws of Program Evolution - Rules and Tools for Programming Management - M.M. Lehman (247-274); Programs, Life Cycles and Laws of Software Evolution - M.M. Lehman 393-450]

Mendling, Jan. "Process Modelling and Standardization." Paper presented at the ERPANET Workshop on Workflow, Budapest, Hungary, October 13-15, 2004. http://www.erpanet.org/events/2004/budapest/presentations/JanMendlingErpanet2004.pdf

Muirhead, Graeme, ed. Planning and Implementing Successful System Migrations. London: Library Association Pub., 1997.

Sieman, Barbara, Raymond Van Diessen, and Christopher A. Lee. “Component Business Model for Digital Repositories.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Digital Preservation (iPres), London, England, September 29-30, 2008.

Ulrich, William M. Legacy Systems: Transformation Strategies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.

O - Vardigan, Mary, and Cole Whiteman. "OAIS Meets ICPSR: Applying the OAIS Reference Model to the Social Science Archive Context." Archival Science 7. No. 1 (2007): 73–87. http://www.springerlink.com.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/content/50746212r6g21326/fulltext.pdf

Warren, Ian. The Renaissance of Legacy Systems: Method Support for Software System Evolution. London: Springer, 1999.

W - Whiteman, Cole. "Mapping Processes in Motion: Visualizing the ICPSR Data Pipeline." Paper presented at New Skills for a Digital Era, Washington, DC, May 31 - June 2, 2006. http://rpm.lib.az.us/NewSkills/CaseStudies/11_Whiteman.pdf

Week 15 - Architectural and System Design Approaches

O - Bowker, Geoffrey C., and Susan Leigh Star. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. http://search.lib.unc.edu/search?R=UNCb8696332 [Pages 13-16]

C, R - Brodie, Michael L., and Michael Stonebraker. "Problems and Possibilities of Legacy IS Migration." In Migrating Legacy Systems: Gateways, Interfaces & the Incremental Approach, 1-39. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1995.

Cooper, Brian F., and Hector Garcia-Molina. "InfoMonitor: Unobtrusively Archiving a World Wide Web Server." International Journal on Digital Libraries 5, no. 2 (2005): 106-19.

Egyedi, Tineke. "Infrastructure Flexibility Created by Standardized Gateways: The Cases of XML and the ISO Container." Knowledge,Technology & Policy 14, no. 3 (2001): 41-54.

W - Hackman, Mark, "How IPR Survived Sandy." Slashdot, November 19, 2012.http://slashdot.org/topic/datacenter/how-ipr-survived-sandy/

Heuvel, Willem-Jan van den. Aligning Modern Business Processes and Legacy Systems: A Component-Based Perspective, Cooperative Information Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

Jacobson, Ivar. Software Reuse. Addison Wesley Lognman, Harlow, England, 1997.

C - Langlois, Richard N., and Paul L. Robertson. "Networks and Innovation in a Modular System: Lessons from the Microcomputer and Stereo Component Industries." Research Policy 21, no. 4 (1992): 297-313.

W - Lee, Cal. "A Talk on Digital Preservation." May 31, 2007. Information in Life Series. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RHy9CW_vMp4

R - Messerschmitt, David G. Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [Modularity and Layering (157-189); Standardization (215-223); Application Architecture (293-324)] [215-223 and 293-324 not in main exerpt file in Sakai]

C, O - Moore, Reagan W. "Building Preservation Environments with Data Grid Technology." American Archivist 69, no. 1 (2006): 139-58.

O - Parnas, D.L. "On the Criteria to Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules." Communications of the ACM 15, no. 12 (1972): 1053-58. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/361598.361623

Rajasekar, Arcot, Michael Wan, Reagan Moore, Wayne Schroeder, Sheau-Yen Chen, Lucas Gilbert, Chien-Yi Hou, Christopher A. Lee, Richard Marciano, Paul Tooby, Antoine de Torcy, and Bing Zhu. iRODS Primer: integrated Rule-Oriented Data System. San Rafael, CA: Morgan & Claypool, 2010.

O - Reich, Victoria, and David Rosenthal. "Distributed Digital Preservation: Private LOCKSS Networks as Business, Social, and Technical Frameworks." Library Trends 57, no. 3 (2009): 461-75.

W - RenaissanceWeb - http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/projects/renaissance/RenaissanceWeb/

W - Rosenthal, David S. H., Thomas Lipkis, Thomas S. Robertson, and Seth Morabito. "Transparent Format Migration of Preserved Web Content." D-Lib Magazine 11, no. 1 (2005).

Simon, Herbert A. "The Architecture of Complexity: Hierarchic Systems." In The Sciences of the Artificial. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. [Concept of partially decomposable subsystems]

Umar, Amjad. Application (Re)Engineering: Building Web-Based Applications and Dealing with Legacies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

W - West, Joel. "The Economic Realities of Open Standards: Black, White, and Many Shades of Gray." In Standards and Public Policy, edited by Shane M. Greenstein and Victor Stango, 87-121. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.joelwest.org/Papers/West2006-WP.pdf


I would like to express special thanks to Cal Lee for sharing resources and course materials from previous iterations of this course. The present syllabus is heavily based on his own syllabi.